Sexism, Hope Solo and “the domestic violence case no one is talking about”

Commercial sports media is unrelenting in its sexism; it is no better or worse than the leagues, teams and schools that give the media its headline fodder. The sports media’s framework for conversations about gender, violence and power is not formed by any feminist intelligence—quite the opposite. The media reproduces an ideology of sex which presents gender difference as a difference in species. On some fundamental level, media pundits love stories about “domestic violence” because it lets pundits (mostly men) luxuriate in a patriarchal language about women’s absolute vulnerability/monstrosity. (Media discourse tends to present women as both at once—the victim who seeks out abuse; the victim who asked for it etc.)

This level of institutional sexism is, in fact, a much bigger problem for women in the sports world than is, say, rape and intimate partner violence. This sexist super-structure not only allows gender-based violence to flourish; it requires the violent demonstration of women’s weakness, women’s essential vulnerability. (Ann Travers describes this matrix as “the sports nexus.”) If, say the coach of your team is demanding sex from his players, exactly where do you go for help? Do you go to your national football association—run by men who are as bad, if not worse? How, people ask, as they tune into 48 hours of weekend broadcasts of men’s sports, are these abusers allowed to get away with treating women like dogs?

A world of absolute gender segregation requires heavy enforcement. That enforcement might take the shape of passive acquiescence to the idea that “this is just the way things are” (“well, I can’t report on the women’s football season because editors don’t think that women’s sports is a story—what can I possibly do?”). It might shape the public’s sense of “interest” (“watching women’s sports is boring”). It might take the form of disavowal — a turning a blind eye (as did various people working with Sandusky at Penn State), or self-censorship (“If I come out my career is over”/”If we hire him, we’ll lose our fan base”). Enforcement takes those shapes, as well as more “active” forms—sex-based harassment and worse (e.g. locker-room abuse, gang rape). In media reporting on gender and violence, the active and the passive combine.

We must be nearing the last act in the “NFL and domestic violence” story cycle: media pundits are now calling for Hope Solo to be pilloried. Fans of the USWNT will know well that Solo is facing assault charges. That story is not new. Washington Post editors might want to claim that this is “the domestic violence case that no one is talking about,” but that claim only works we ignore The Seattle Times, which, for example, has covered the story consistently, and responsibly, through their Seattle Sounders FC blog (Solo plays for Seattle Reign). The fact is that the national news media basically doesn’t give a shit about women’s sports stories unless they can be made into stories about men. Unless Solo’s case, in other words, can appear as a footnote to the Ray Rice story and (worse) absorbed into some broad popular sense that women, in general, are somehow getting away with something.

For the media pundit, all of these cases are all the same. This is, in fact, how sexist and racist ideologies work—the media discourse will move towards a “there are two sides the story” structure. Given that there is no way to produce a story of Janay Palmer as the aggressor from the image of her knocked unconscious, we must find some other woman—a woman who is violent just like men are violent. And thus the turn to Hope Solo, who faces fourth degree assault charges stemming from a (by all available accounts on both sides) chaotic, drunken, violent confrontation with her half-sister and 17-year old nephew. Solo’s case is still pending: it was a brawl—and it’s unclear how it got started. The situation was bad enough, however, to merit the charges advancing through the system. Her teams are standing by her. Seattle Reign have been clear that they’ll take appropriate disciplinary action pending the outcome of the court case.

Solo’s story, it must be noted, does intersect with that of the NFL—Solo’s marriage began with another brawl, also involving a group of people.  The police were called out in the middle of the night to respond to a “disturbance.” Her fiancé, Jerramy Stevens (who played for the Seattle Seahawks), was arrested on suspicion of assaulting Solo. The charges were dropped. It was another woman, not Solo, who went to the hospital with a hip injury, and a third person was also reported as injured. Solo’s brother blamed the fight on a few unknown men who crashed their party. The fight, consistently reported by the media as domestic abuse, involved eight people at a party that “got out of control.” Is Solo a victim or an abuser? Or something else?

The idea that Solo is an abused partner/abusive partner makes for a good story: “Hope Solo is the Ray Rice of women’s sports.” Women—just like men, except they get away with more!

It is a very sad fact that people in abusive situations get caught up in violent conflict; they can get caught up in the system. They mark each other, and end up marked. I don’t know Solo, I have no idea how to understand these stories of drunken brawls except as an indication of the ubiquity of intense, alcohol-fueled violent conflict in her family—a reasonable take, especially if you’ve read her memoir. In some situations, especially from a depersonalized distance, you can’t see the difference between the abuser and the abused. Violence circulates. This is one reason why police will sometimes take all parties involved in a fight into custody. It is a reasonable assumption that Solo was at risk of being an abused partner. But that Stevens was arrested does not make this so. Similarly, in Solo’s current case, we can’t know exactly what went down—even when the court deciding the case comes to whatever conclusion it settles on.

It is also the case that the court system is woefully inadequate when it comes to addressing intimate partner violence, and that throwing people in jail is no solution to the problem. Community based, restorative forms of justice are rarely discussed in these situations, but they should be. But, then again, where women and mainstream sports are concerned, there is nothing to restore. There is no community to repair.

What we have now is: men talking about men, men coaching and administering men’s sports and women’s sports, addressing an audience imagined as men — women are exiled to a separate and totally unequal system. We get the occasional public sacrifice of gender non-normative people like Caster Semenya (the difference between men and women must be enforced!), or the ritual hanging of problem masculinity (almost always black men) — these figures render the systemic discrimination which defines the NFL, ESPN and just about every apparatus handling the sport spectacle into an anomaly (Semenya) or a managerial problem (Rice) to be resolved.

All of this is to say that it just isn’t helpful to equate Solo with Rice, or, for that matter, Rice with Peterson. Or to imagine that the solution is to pillory any of these individuals. The answer certainly is not to sweep this level of crisis under the rug, but there must be something better than the facile moralizing which seems to be the order of the day.

There are lots of reasons for separating out Solo’s case from those plaguing the NFL and other sports. There is a whole category of precedent-setting Title IX rape cases involving football players and programs. The entire culture/sociology/economics of mainstream men’s sports is defined through intensely gendered forms of brutality. Penn State didn’t happen because people ignored one incident, or downplayed it. It happened because the entire system is set up to protect masculine forms of power and authority.

I recall here that in 2010, there was not one meaningful story published in US or UK-based sports news about the fact that the head coach of the South African women’s football team was sexually abusing players — that this was happening through the men’s World Cup, almost certainly with the knowledge of people at the South African Football Association. It’s hard to believe that FIFA administrators were ignorant of this. And I’d frankly be surprised if that was the only national women’s team that was poisoned by this level of sexual harassment. In 2009, the biggest story in women’s sports was a series of ludicrous fouls conducted within a regional, amateur women’s soccer game that happened to be recorded and broadcast (that in and of itself is a rarity). Everyone reported that incident like it was news.

There are months when it seems that women only appear in the sports pages if they win a world championship or file a rape accusation. So I guess we should be glad Solo’s personal life is so awful, so explosive. Were it not, the US’s win over Mexico and Solo’s shut-out record wouldn’t have appeared in the news as the footnote it is to the story “no one is talking about.”

All of this is to assert that the media’s relationship to women is itself violent. And as long as the day-in-day out struggle of women athletes—to win games, to set world records, to win appropriate support for their sport—remains the story that “no one” is actually talking about, no one gets to indulge the fantasy that a woman athlete’s domestic assault charge is “the same” as that faced by a multi-million dollar male athlete playing for a billion dollar business run by and for men.


  1. This is fantastic.

  2. Julia Brelsford says:

    Thank you. It has been frustrating to read so many “hang her high” pieces and comments about Solo. So the NFL player, Rice, got indicted for a felony assault, and the DA let him off with pre-trial diversion (no plea, behave for a year, and all goes away). And his league suspended him for only two games. Then the uproar over the tape, and then the nasty history in the NFL of dealing with DV. And then, apparently because the NFL looked so bad, Solo had to be punished, harshly, and now. Because?

    And you were right on about the false equivalency. Solo did something, or was involved in something, which is being charged as a misdemeanor, and she now is put into the same category as the NFL player who head butted his wife and broke her nose, when she wouldn’t have sex with him. And who followed that up the next day with a punch to the face.

  3. Powerful, informative and dead on. Thank you.

  4. I love your careful, caustic analysis, and I’m sure that analysis often goes unappreciated. Thank you.

    • Dianabaranitski says:

      That isn’t about sexism. that is about money. Its pretty clear cut. These athletes who do deserve to be locked up bring in money…lots of money. This isn’t the patriarchal society trying to protect men its the capitalist society trying to protect profit.

  5. You are missing the point too. This isn’t about the nfl, or sexism. This is about victims. Nfl has far less domestic violence than the nypd. Judges, CEOs, athletes, politicians, abuse at the same rate. Hope solo is included, so is her husband, but it’s about all.

    Sad that no one sees the opportunity to expose the real issue. Let’s talk about the millions of abused instead of the few.

    • Hi Scott, I am actually writing a short book about police violence and sexual assault on college campuses. As this is my sports blog I don’t post much of that work here. The systemic abuse of power/authority is always worth keeping in view. Thank you.

  6. I’d not heard of the Solo case until I read this whereas the NFL scandals are all over the papers in the UK. But any fool can see the difference between an isolated incident and a culture. IMO the culture of American football is rotten and the sexism in that sport shocks me (and this is someone who has been brought up in the culture of UK football!) I do not think it is a coincidence that a sport that has women playing it in underwear (the Legends Football League) or forces its cheerleaders to take the “jiggle test” has a problem with domestic violence. If the sport treats women as sex objects it is hardly surprising some players do the same. As someone who comments on your blog wrote in his blog “gridiron football needs to just fade away”
    On another point, do you think men should be banned form coaching women’s teams? It would (a) give women an opening into the coaching profession and (b) cut down the sexual abuse you (rightly) expose. As we found out in the child abuse scandals we’ve had in the UK it is very hard for vulnerable people to report abuse if the establishment doesn’t believe them or doesn’t care – and that is definitely true in sport.

    • I would never support such a ban but it is true that as women’s sports has gained more recognition more men coach — and we find that fewer and fewer women have the chance to lead on this level. But that isn’t because too many men are involved in coaching women’s sports. It’s because there are almost no women coaching men! So – I’d advocate for a kind of a “Rooney Rule” for women coaches for men’s sports! (That rule requires NFL teams to interview one minority candidate for coaching positions.)

      • An interesting idea but in the UK there are two chances of that happening (a) slim and (b) none. We don’t even have the Rooney rule in male football with the result that 92 pro football teams in England have NO black managers between them. That’s why I think my idea has more chance of happening in the UK – perhaps a quota system (say 50% of female teams must have female coaches) might be a compromise. What puzzles me is why all women in football don’t think like you. In Scotland Shelly Kerr has recently took over the men’s team at Stirling University but on BBC TV last week Scotland’s NWT coach Anna Signuel said women should coach women!. And she’s from Sweden which I regard as a progressive country. Definitely compared to Scotland where you might be interested to know the NWT is only on TV in Gaelic which 98.9% of the population doesn’t speak or understand. Says it al really – especially as the team is very good could go to the WC and you’ll know our star player Kim Little who was voted the American League’s MVP.

  7. Outside of negative discussion about Solo (now and earlier and earlier….), I wonder how many times the USWNT or NWSL (or any player) made the top lineup (above the first commercial break) of PTI since the WWC 2011 (or in the span between the Olympics and now)? Or was featured on Around The Horn? Or was featured in mainstream media? I think it is possible that more folks in the nation now know that Solo broke the goalkeeping record (reported in a negative story) than they do that Wambach broke the scoring record.

    I’m at most a casual soccer fan and even I’m frustrated by what is going on here (and am venting at you what you are already talking about, my bad). i really appreciated your thoughts on the media in this mess.

  8. I just found your blog after listening to your interview with Howler Magazine. I’ve also been a huge fan of the USWNT for awhile, and have been squeamish about rooting for a lineup that includes Solo since I heard about the charges back when the incident occurred in June. While I agree that the equivalencies that are being made by the mainstream press between Solo and anything going on in the NFL are groundless and only tend to serve entrenched patriarchal interests, I can’t help but be at least partially interested in hearing the debate partly because I’m not sure how to think about one of my favorite teams basically ignoring the potentially abusive behavior of one of its stars. I have a hard time rooting for those who are violent off-field in other sporting contexts as well (including, e.g., refusing to draft someone like Roethlisberger in fantasy football). This seems to be an especially vexing case for a reason that you didn’t mention here: US Soccer, since at least 1999, has mythologized the USWNT as positive role models for girls. This continues with Hope Solo, post-arrest: in Cary, NC, after an open practice before the recent US-Switzerland friendly, Solo was one of the US players signing autographs for a crowd of fans mostly consisting of girls. While equating Solo with Rice is obviously harmful, it also seems problematic for US Soccer to put Solo front and center right now in that role of public engagement.

  9. Danielle says:

    Thank you! Totally agree.

    The people who are trying to say “HA! LOOK! Hope Solo committed domestic abuse and no one’s talking about THAT! Double Standard!!” haven’t the slightest spec of context or sense of comparison.

    She received legit suspensions for a level of ‘crime’ that if a valuable sportsman had committed would not only have been shrugged off (being so pale in comparison to the horrific incidents we’ve gotten used to hearing about), but it probably wouldn’t even have been mentioned at all in the first place as a result of a comprehensive cover up effort at every single stage, from the victims, to the police man who came to the door, straight through the legal system, the media, the team, the league and the media again because no one would want to jeoparadize the performance of the team, or the reputation of the sport, or their own credibility, when the whole world has so much invested money, time, faith and general emotion into men’s sports and their icons. But when it comes to toying around with the USNWT or women’s soccer in the US… meh, a scandal is probably more interesting than a win, so might as well milk the incident for all it’s worth, and try to make arguments in defence of male sports personalities while we’re at it.

    The public is far more liable to believe that a woman athlete is some kind of unruly monster than that some great american male sports hero could be anything other than brave, bold and honourable. Sure he might have some testosterone fuelled mishaps, but that’s what heroes are made of, right? How many people are likely to have a strong defensive reaction if we tear down Hope Solo? And just how powerful are those people and how scared are we of offending them?

    And besides, where’s the big story? An individual on a sports team seems to have exhibited some ‘unbecoming behaviour’. She immediately lost some endorsements, and was immediately suspended… not much scandal in that. Everyone hears about male athlete scandals because, as you say, everyone hears about male sports in the first place and actually knows those characters, and because the sponsors and teams/league resist taking action for long enough for the public to get outraged about it, and because it’s never some isolated athlete, but a disturbing trend of extremely privileged and idolized men running rampant with immunity and praise and glory. Dare I ask how much Hope Solo gets paid for being arguably the world’s best goal keeper in history and growing to be so within a woefully neglected league and development program? Dare I ask how many sturdy claps on the back she’s gotten throughout her life for exhibiting self confidence, work ethic, competitiveness, toughness, resilience, power, and aggression? Dare I ask how many people have made her feel invincibly indispensible to the nation?

    There is no equivalency. At all. On any level.

    And finally, it’s very unfortunate that the public and the media’s efforts to raise valuable objections about sports culture as a system often turn into the pillorying of the single individual involved, and that this individual is, well, never the most unlikely scapegoat. You’re right about that too.


  1. […] Doyle feels the same way about this. In a post on her blog The Sport Spectacle (which was picked up by Deadspin), Doyle pushed back against the […]

  2. […] As Jen Doyle points out, media discourse leads to a narrative that says there are two sides to every story. People sought out what that ‘other side’ is, and arrived at the conclusion that it must be Solo. […]

  3. […] But we’ve got a problem. There are people out there writing rebuttal articles and blogs that are being very well-received. They’re making us look like amateurs who don’t know […]

  4. […] But we’ve got a problem. There are people out there writing rebuttal articles and blogs that are being very well-received. They’re making us look like amateurs who don’t know […]

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